PURPOSE OF REVIEW: PDZ proteins are major structural components of protein assembly. This review covers the implications of these proteins in the regulation of transport systems expressed in renal proximal tubules. RECENT FINDINGS: In the last few years, many reports have highlighted the implication of PDZ proteins in two aspects of proximal tubule physiology, namely the generation and maintenance of epithelial polarity and the formation of regulatory complexes that provide spatial and molecular specificity to the intracellular signalling. SUMMARY: PDZ-mediated interactions are involved in a wide range of cellular functions, from cell division to cell polarity to intracellular signalling. Consistent with this functional spectrum, ablation of PDZ protein genes generates a wide panel of pathological phenotypes, some of which link directly to human syndromes. In proximal tubules, PDZ proteins are thought to play a major role in epithelial polarity and transport regulation.