Decreased neurotrophic factors expression and neurotrophin receptors signalling have repeatedly been reported in association with stress, depression, and neurodegenerative disorders. We have previously identified the hallucinogen 2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine hydrochloride (DOI) as protective against trophic deprivation-induced cytotoxicity in human neuroblastoma SK-N-SH cells and established the dependence of this effect on the 5-HT2A receptor, tyrosine kinases activity, and the extracellular signal-regulated kinase pathway. In the current study, we investigated the effect of DOI on tropomyosin-related kinase receptor A (TrkA) phosphorylation. Treatment with DOI increased TrkA tyrosine phosphorylation in SK-N-SH cells, determined by immunoprecipitation with TrkA antibody and immunoblotting with anti-phosphotyrosine- and TrkA-antibodies. Analysis of DOI's effect on individual TrkA residues in SK-N-SH cells showed that it increases TrkA Tyr490 phosphorylation (177 ± 23% after 5 μM DOI for 30 min compared to vehicle). Furthermore, DOI treatment increased the percentage of SK-N-SH cells extending neurites in a TrkA-dependent manner (17.2 ± 2.2% after 5 μM DOI treatment for 6 days compared to 5.6 ± 1.7% after vehicle). In a different cell model-lymphoblastoid cell lines-DOI treatment increased tropomyosin-related kinase receptor B (TrkB) phosphorylation, determined by immunoprecipitation with TrkB antibody and immunoblotting with anti-phosphotyrosine antibody and total Trk antibody. Our results identify the Trk receptors as a downstream target of the hallucinogen DOI. In light of the known involvement of Trk receptors in mental diseases, their participation in DOI-mediated effects warrants further investigation.