INTRODUCTION: In contrast to skin cancer and lymphoproliferative disorders, de-novo lung allograft cancer is seldom reported after lung transplantation.
CASE REPORT: A 19-year-old patient with severe pulmonary hypertension listed urgently for lung transplantation underwent successful bilateral lung transplant procedure receiving lungs from a 55-year-old donor with a smoking history of 30 pack years. After 3.5 years of lung transplantation, a locally advanced squamous cell carcinoma in the left lung allograft was diagnosed. Extended (intra-pericardial) left pneumonectomy was successfully performed, but the patient died a few weeks later due to acute respiratory distress syndrome.
CONCLUSION: Usage of extended criteria donors seems a successful strategy to overcome shortage of donor lungs by the increasing number of lung transplant candidates. However, this approach might increase the risk of novel development of lung allograft cancer, a potential fatal complication that must be considered during follow-up of lung transplant recipients.