The first description of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in the 1980s marked the origin of psychotraumatology. Based on the variety of developments in the meantime and being relevant for basic research and clinical application, a differentiation of diagnoses according to the new International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11) are presented including PTSD, complex PTSD, prolonged grief disorder and adjustment disorder. In addition, extension towards traumatic and adverse childhood experiences and their significance for lifetime mental and somatic morbidity are described. Concerning these childhood traumata and adversities, distinct biological and epigenetic factors have been extensively investigated. Also, research groups have postulated that important psychological disorders should be differentiated according to those with and those without reference to pathogenetic trauma. Lastly, regarding relevant public discourses, societal dimensions of victimhood and compensation are discussed as well as a global perspective with respect to continuous and historical traumatization.