ADP-ribosylation is a posttranslational modification (PTM) that affects a variety of cellular processes. In recent years, mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomics has become a valuable tool for studying ADP-ribosylation. However, studying this PTM in vivo in an unbiased and sensitive manner has remained a difficult challenge. Here, we describe a detailed protocol for unbiased analysis of ADP-ribosylated proteins and their ADP-ribose acceptor sites under physiological conditions. The method relies on the enrichment of mono-ADP-ribosylated peptides using the macrodomain Af1521 in combination with liquid chromatography-high-resolution tandem MS (LC-MS/MS). The 5-day protocol explains the step-by-step enrichment and identification of ADP-ribosylated peptides from cell culture stage all the way through to data processing using the MaxQuant software suite.