The fluorescence of a fluorophore depends on its environment, and if attached to a protein it may report on conformational changes. We have combined two-electrode voltage clamp with simultaneous fluorescence measurements to detect conformational changes in a type IIb Na(+)/P(i) cotransporter expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Four novel Cys labelled with a fluorescent probe yielded voltage-and substrate-dependent changes in fluorescence (F). Neither Cys-substitution nor labelling significantly altered the mutants' electrogenic properties. Different F responses to voltage and substrate were recorded at the four sites. S155C, located in an intracellular re-entrant loop in the first half of the protein, and E451C, located in an extracellular re-entrant loop in the second half of the protein both showed Na(+), Li(+)- and P(i)-dependent F signals. S226C and Q319C, located at opposite ends of a large extracellular loop in the middle of the protein, mainly responded to changes in Na(+) and Li(+). Hyperpolarization increased F for S155C and S226C, but decreased F for Q319C and E451C. The labelling and F response of S155C, confirmed that the intracellular loop containing Ser-155 is re-entrant as it is accessible from the extracellular milieu. The behavior of S155C and E451C indicates a strong involvement of the two re-entrant loops in conformational changes during the transport cycle. Moreover, the data for S226C and Q319C suggest that also the large extracellular loop is associated with transport function. Finally, the reciprocal voltage-dependencies of the S155C-E451C and S226C-Q319C pairs suggest reciprocal conformational changes during the transport cycle for their respective local environments.