Immunotherapy employs cytokines for modifying local inflammatory reactions. Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) has been shown to activate dendritic cells, macrophages, and granulocytes leading to clinical trials using GM-CSF-based cancer vaccine approaches. Interleukin-2 (IL-2) is an important T cell stimulatory cytokine approved as exogenous antitumor agent. The ALVAC viral vector system uses a recombinant canarypox virus for local gene expression. We report a phase I clinical trial using intratumoral administration of ALVAC GM-CSF or ALVAC IL-2 in skin metastases of melanoma or leiomyosarcoma. ALVAC GM-CSF and ALVAC IL-2 were injected at 107.12 and 106.92, 50% cell culture infectious dose in eight metastases with acceptable tolerability. Local and systemic inflammatory reactions were observed. The transgene determined the local infiltrate: GM-CSF induced monocyte and macrophage enrichment of the peritumoral inflammatory infiltrate, whereas IL-2 increased local T lymphocytes. Stable disease of injected lesions was seen after ALVAC GM-CSF application, whereas ALVAC IL-2 treatment led to partial regression in three out of eight injected tumors, accompanied by decreased expression of melanocytic antigens. Local GM-CSF expression could be induced. In summary, ALVAC GM-CSF and ALVAC IL-2 injections are safe and can mediate local biologic and immunologic effects.