Header

UZH-Logo

Maintenance Infos

Targeting endothelin receptor signalling overcomes heterogeneity driven therapy failure


Abstract

Approaches to prolong responses to BRAF targeting drugs in melanoma patients are challenged by phenotype heterogeneity. Melanomas of a "MITF-high" phenotype usually respond well to BRAF inhibitor therapy, but these melanomas also contain subpopulations of the de novo resistance "AXL-high" phenotype. > 50% of melanomas progress with enriched "AXL-high" populations, and because AXL is linked to de-differentiation and invasiveness avoiding an "AXL-high relapse" is desirable. We discovered that phenotype heterogeneity is supported during the response phase of BRAF inhibitor therapy due to MITF-induced expression of endothelin 1 (EDN1). EDN1 expression is enhanced in tumours of patients on treatment and confers drug resistance through ERK re-activation in a paracrine manner. Most importantly, EDN1 not only supports MITF-high populations through the endothelin receptor B (EDNRB), but also AXL-high populations through EDNRA, making it a master regulator of phenotype heterogeneity. Endothelin receptor antagonists suppress AXL-high-expressing cells and sensitize to BRAF inhibition, suggesting that targeting EDN1 signalling could improve BRAF inhibitor responses without selecting for AXL-high cells.

Abstract

Approaches to prolong responses to BRAF targeting drugs in melanoma patients are challenged by phenotype heterogeneity. Melanomas of a "MITF-high" phenotype usually respond well to BRAF inhibitor therapy, but these melanomas also contain subpopulations of the de novo resistance "AXL-high" phenotype. > 50% of melanomas progress with enriched "AXL-high" populations, and because AXL is linked to de-differentiation and invasiveness avoiding an "AXL-high relapse" is desirable. We discovered that phenotype heterogeneity is supported during the response phase of BRAF inhibitor therapy due to MITF-induced expression of endothelin 1 (EDN1). EDN1 expression is enhanced in tumours of patients on treatment and confers drug resistance through ERK re-activation in a paracrine manner. Most importantly, EDN1 not only supports MITF-high populations through the endothelin receptor B (EDNRB), but also AXL-high populations through EDNRA, making it a master regulator of phenotype heterogeneity. Endothelin receptor antagonists suppress AXL-high-expressing cells and sensitize to BRAF inhibition, suggesting that targeting EDN1 signalling could improve BRAF inhibitor responses without selecting for AXL-high cells.

Statistics

Citations

Dimensions.ai Metrics
6 citations in Web of Science®
6 citations in Scopus®
8 citations in Microsoft Academic
Google Scholar™

Altmetrics

Downloads

6 downloads since deposited on 30 Aug 2017
5 downloads since 12 months
Detailed statistics

Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > University Hospital Zurich > Dermatology Clinic
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Language:English
Date:August 2017
Deposited On:30 Aug 2017 13:11
Last Modified:19 Feb 2018 08:35
Publisher:Wiley Open Access
ISSN:1757-4676
OA Status:Gold
Free access at:PubMed ID. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.15252/emmm.201607156
PubMed ID:28606996

Download

Download PDF  'Targeting endothelin receptor signalling overcomes heterogeneity driven therapy failure'.
Preview
Content: Published Version
Filetype: PDF
Size: 4MB
View at publisher
Licence: Creative Commons: Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0)