After nearly three decades of research, there is still no clarity on the causal relationship between chronic cocaine use and cognitive functioning. However, the current literature consistently suggests that broad cognitive impairments occur in not only dependent cocaine users but also recreational cocaine users, with impairments involving attention, working memory declarative memory and executive functions. Moreover, it was recently shown that chronic cocaine users exhibit specific deficits in socio-cognitive abilities, which very likely contribute to the social dysfunctions that occur in their daily lives. Correlation analyses and initial longitudinal studies indicate that most cognitive deficits are at least partially cocaine-induced. Accordingly, there is also some evidence regarding the recovery of cognitive functions in decreasing and long-term abstinent users.