The control of meal size is the best studied aspect of the control of energy balance, and manipulation of this system constitutes a promising target to treat obesity. A major part of this control system is based on gastrointestinal hormones such as glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) or amylin, which are released in response to a meal and which limit the size of an ongoing meal. Both amylin and GLP-1 have also been shown to increase energy expenditure in experimental rodents, but mechanistically we know much less how this effect may be mediated, which brain sites may be involved, and what the physiological relevance of these findings may be. Most studies indicate that the effect of peripheral amylin is centrally mediated via the area postrema, but other brain areas, such as the ventral tegmental area, may also be involved. GLP-1's effect on eating seems to be mainly mediated by vagal afferents projecting to the caudal hindbrain. Chronic exposure to amylin, GLP-1 or their analogs decrease food intake and body weight gain. Next to the induction of satiation, amylin may also constitute an adiposity signal and in fact interact with the adiposity signal leptin. Amylin analogs are under clinical consideration for their effect to reduce food intake and body weight in humans, and similar to rodents, amylin analogs seem to be particularly active when combined with leptin analogs.