Safe locomotion is a crucial aspect of human daily living that requires well-functioning motor control processes. The human neuromotor control of daily activities such as walking relies on the complex interaction of subcortical and cortical areas. Technical developments in neuroimaging systems allow the quantification of cortical activation during the execution of motor tasks. Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) seems to be a promising tool to monitor motor control processes in cortical areas in freely moving subjects. However, so far, there is no established standardized protocol regarding the application and data processing of fNIRS signals that limits the comparability among studies. Hence, this systematic review aimed to summarize the current knowledge about application and data processing in fNIRS studies dealing with walking or postural tasks. Fifty-six articles of an initial yield of 1420 publications were reviewed and information about methodology, data processing, and findings were extracted. Based on our results, we outline the recommendations with respect to the design and data processing of fNIRS studies. Future perspectives of measuring fNIRS signals in movement science are discussed.