Glioblastoma is the most common and aggressive intrinsic brain tumor in adults. Self-renewing, highly tumorigenic glioma-initiating cells (GIC) have been linked to glioma invasive properties, immunomodulation, and increased angiogenesis, leading to resistance to therapy. TGF-β signaling has been associated with the tumorigenic activity of GIC. TGF-β is synthesized as a precursor molecule and proteolytically processed to the mature form by members of the family of the proprotein convertases subtilisin/kexin. In this study we report that furin is unique among the proprotein convertases subtilisin/kexin in being highly expressed in human GIC. Furin cleaves and promotes activation of pro-TGF-β1 and pro-TGF-β2, and TGF-β2 in turn increases furin levels. Notably, TGF-β2 controls furin activity in an ALK-5-dependent manner involving the ERK/MAPK pathway. We thus uncover a role of ERK1 in the regulation of furin activity by supporting a self-sustaining loop for high TGF-β activity in GIC.