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Engagement within a mobile phone–based smoking cessation intervention for adolescents and its association with participant characteristics and outcomes


Paz Castro, Raquel; Haug, Severin; Filler, Andreas; Kowatsch, Tobias; Schaub, Michael P (2017). Engagement within a mobile phone–based smoking cessation intervention for adolescents and its association with participant characteristics and outcomes. Journal of Medical Internet Research, 19(11):e356.

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Although mobile phone-delivered smoking cessation programs are a promising way to promote smoking cessation among adolescents, little is known about how adolescents might actually use them.
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine adolescents' trajectories of engagement with a mobile phone-delivered smoking cessation program over time and the associations these trajectories have with baseline characteristics and treatment outcomes.
METHODS: We performed secondary data analysis on a dataset from a study that compared a mobile phone-delivered integrated smoking cessation and alcohol intervention with a smoking cessation only intervention for adolescents recruited in vocational and upper secondary school classes (N=1418). Throughout the 3-month intervention, participants in both intervention groups received one text message prompt per week that either assessed smoking-related target behaviors or encouraged participation in a quiz or a message contest. Sequence analyses were performed to identify engagement trajectories. Analyses were conducted to identify predictors of engagement trajectory and associations between engagement trajectories and treatment outcomes.
RESULTS: Three engagement trajectories emerged: (1) stable engagement (646/1418, 45.56%), (2) decreasing engagement (501/1418, 35.33%), and (3) stable nonengagement (271/1418, 19.11%). Adolescents who were younger, had no immigrant background, perceived more benefits of quitting smoking, and reported binge drinking preceding the baseline assessment were more likely to exhibit stable engagement. Due to different reach of more engaged and less engaged participants at follow-up, three statistical models (complete-cases, last-observation-carried-forward, and multiple imputation) for the associations of engagement trajectory and smoking outcome were tested. For 7-point smoking abstinence, no association was revealed to be statistically significant over all three models. However, decreasing engagement with the program was associated over all three models, with greater reductions in daily tobacco use than nonengagement.
CONCLUSIONS: The majority of tobacco-smoking adolescents engaged extensively with a mobile phone-based smoking cessation program. However, not only stable engagement but also decreasing engagement with a program might be an indicator of behavioral change. Measures to avoid nonengagement among adolescents appear especially necessary for older smokers with an immigrant background who do not drink excessively. In addition, future studies should not only examine the use of specific program components but also users' engagement trajectories to better understand the mechanisms behind behavioral change.

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Although mobile phone-delivered smoking cessation programs are a promising way to promote smoking cessation among adolescents, little is known about how adolescents might actually use them.
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine adolescents' trajectories of engagement with a mobile phone-delivered smoking cessation program over time and the associations these trajectories have with baseline characteristics and treatment outcomes.
METHODS: We performed secondary data analysis on a dataset from a study that compared a mobile phone-delivered integrated smoking cessation and alcohol intervention with a smoking cessation only intervention for adolescents recruited in vocational and upper secondary school classes (N=1418). Throughout the 3-month intervention, participants in both intervention groups received one text message prompt per week that either assessed smoking-related target behaviors or encouraged participation in a quiz or a message contest. Sequence analyses were performed to identify engagement trajectories. Analyses were conducted to identify predictors of engagement trajectory and associations between engagement trajectories and treatment outcomes.
RESULTS: Three engagement trajectories emerged: (1) stable engagement (646/1418, 45.56%), (2) decreasing engagement (501/1418, 35.33%), and (3) stable nonengagement (271/1418, 19.11%). Adolescents who were younger, had no immigrant background, perceived more benefits of quitting smoking, and reported binge drinking preceding the baseline assessment were more likely to exhibit stable engagement. Due to different reach of more engaged and less engaged participants at follow-up, three statistical models (complete-cases, last-observation-carried-forward, and multiple imputation) for the associations of engagement trajectory and smoking outcome were tested. For 7-point smoking abstinence, no association was revealed to be statistically significant over all three models. However, decreasing engagement with the program was associated over all three models, with greater reductions in daily tobacco use than nonengagement.
CONCLUSIONS: The majority of tobacco-smoking adolescents engaged extensively with a mobile phone-based smoking cessation program. However, not only stable engagement but also decreasing engagement with a program might be an indicator of behavioral change. Measures to avoid nonengagement among adolescents appear especially necessary for older smokers with an immigrant background who do not drink excessively. In addition, future studies should not only examine the use of specific program components but also users' engagement trajectories to better understand the mechanisms behind behavioral change.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > Swiss Research Institute for Public Health and Addiction
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Uncontrolled Keywords:adolescent, alcohol drinking, mobile phones, tobacco, treatment outcome
Language:English
Date:2017
Deposited On:13 Nov 2017 17:15
Last Modified:01 Jun 2018 00:49
Publisher:JMIR Publications
ISSN:1438-8871
OA Status:Gold
Free access at:PubMed ID. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.2196/jmir.7928
PubMed ID:29092811

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