Labeling of long RNA molecules in a site-specific yet generally applicable manner is integral to many spectroscopic applications. Here we present a novel covalent labeling approach that is site-specific and scalable to long intricately folded RNAs. In this approach, a custom-designed DNA strand that hybridizes to the RNA guides a reactive group to target a preselected adenine residue. The functionalized nucleotide along with the concomitantly oxidized 3'-terminus can subsequently be conjugated to two different fluorophores via bio-orthogonal chemistry. We validate this modular labeling platform using a regulatory RNA of 275 nucleotides, the btuB riboswitch of Escherichia coli, demonstrate its general applicability by modifying a base within a duplex, and show its site-selectivity in targeting a pair of adjacent adenines. Native folding and function of the RNA is confirmed on the single-molecule level by using FRET as a sensor to visualize and characterize the conformational equilibrium of the riboswitch upon binding of its cofactor adenosylcobalamin. The presented labeling strategy overcomes size and site constraints that have hampered routine production of labeled RNA that are beyond 200 nt in length.