Total hip arthroplasty (THA) is a very successful and effective orthopedic operation with very good immediate as well as long-term results to alleviate pain and improve health-related quality of life. A THA is indicated in end-stage hip osteoarthritis with a high degree of persistent suffering when conservative treatment has failed and in patients who wish a THA. This statement is generally valid for patients where the medical history, clinical examination and radiographic findings are conclusive, the pressure of suffering and the expectations are realistic. The timing of THA is based on the patient's discomfort. The treatment of these patients should include an interdisciplinary approach and the main goal is to improve the quality of life. Patients will learn to have reasonable expectations and should be well informed about the risks and benefits of THA. Realistic patient expectations seem to be a predictive factor for a good subjective outcome after THA.