Lung cancer is still one of the most frequent tumours and associated with high mortality, due to the fact that the patients are frequently diagnosed in the advanced stages 3 or 4. Non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSLCL) consists of the histologic variants adenocarcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and large cell carcinoma and is separated from small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC). NSCLC is primarily resected and SCLC is mainly treated with radio-chemotherapy. Predictive oncogenic markers such as mutations in the EGFR gene are established only for adenocarcinoma, whereas immunotherapy may be performed in all entities. For personalized patient therapy, it is imminent that comprehensive staging data, including molecular pathologic findings, are discussed on a tumour board. Complete molecular pathologic work-up requires sufficient amount of tumour tissue.