PURPOSE: This review gives an overview of physiological processes, mainly regarding vascular endothelial cells and their important role in hemostasis, information processing, and communication during trauma. An insight is given into molecules and cells involved in the first innate immune response through to the behavior of endothelial cells in developing trauma. The goal of this review is to show the overlap of crucial factors related to the endothelium and the development of trauma.
METHODS: A systemic literature search was performed using Google scholar and PubMed.
RESULTS: The results of the literature search showed that the endothelium, especially the vascular endothelium, is involved in various cellular and subcellular pathways of activation, suppression, and transfer of information. A variety of molecules and cells are orchestrated, subsequently the endothelium gets in contact with a traumatizing event.
CONCLUSION: The endothelium is one of the first barriers that comes into contact with exo- and endogenous trauma-related signals and is a pivotal point in activating subsequent pathways and cascades by transfer of information.