Heparin is an excellent inhibitor of P- and L-selectin binding to the carbohydrate determinant, sialyl Lewis(x). As a consequence of its anti-selectin activity, heparin attenuates metastasis and inflammation. Here we show that fucosylated chondroitin sulfate (FucCS), a polysaccharide isolated from sea cucumber composed of a chondroitin sulfate backbone substituted at the 3-position of the beta-D-glucuronic acid residues with 2,4-disulfated alpha-L-fucopyranosyl branches, is a potent inhibitor of P- and L-selectin binding to immobilized sialyl Lewis(x) and LS180 carcinoma cell attachment to immobilized P- and L-selectins. Inhibition occurs in a concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, FucCS was 4-8-fold more potent than heparin in the inhibition of the P- and L-selectin-sialyl Lewis(x) interactions. No inhibition of E-selectin was observed. FucCS also inhibited lung colonization by adenocarcinoma MC-38 cells in an experimental metastasis model in mice, as well as neutrophil recruitment in two models of inflammation (thioglycollate-induced peritonitis and lipopolysaccharide-induced lung inflammation). Inhibition occurred at a dose that produces no significant change in plasma activated partial thromboplastin time. Removal of the sulfated fucose branches on the FucCS abolished the inhibitory effect in vitro and in vivo. Overall, the results suggest that invertebrate FucCS may be a potential alternative to heparin for blocking metastasis and inflammatory reactions without the undesirable side effects of anticoagulant heparin.