Lymphedema is a chronic progressive and potentially debiliating disease that is frequently observed after cancer treatment. Radical lymphadenectomy and radiotherapy which are strongly associated with development of a lymphedema remain essential components of the therapeutic concept of cancer. Resection of fibrotic tissue should only be evaluated at the end stage of the disease, while liposuction is less invasive and seems to be highly effective in reducing extremity circumferences. Lymphovenous anastomoses and microvascular lymphnode transfers provide valuable therapeutic options for a properly selected patient population and can improve skin quality and limit progression of the disease. In order to further confirm the promising results, scientifically prospective studies with higher numbers of patients as well as long-term follow-up studies are necessary.