During the Palaeozoic, a diversification in modes of life occurred that included a wide range of predators. Major macroecological events include the Cambrian Explosion (including the Agronomic Substrate Revolution and the here introduced ’Ediacaran-Cambrian Mouthpart Armament’), the Great Ordovician Biodiversification Event, the Palaeozoic Plankton Revolution, the Siluro-Devonian Jaw Armament (newly introduced herein) and the Devonian Nekton Revolution. Here, we discuss the evolutionary advancement in oral equipment, i.e. the Palaeozoic evolution of mouthparts and jaws in a macroecological context. It appears that particularly the latest Neoproterozoic to Cambrian and the Silurian to Devonian were phases when important innovations in the evolution of oral structures occurred.