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Lethal gastric mucosal necrosis due to administration of oral ferrous bisglycinate chelate to suckling piglets


Stokar-Regenscheit, N; Sydler, Titus; Bürgi, E; Lippuner, A; Naegeli, Hanspeter; Sidler, Xaver (2017). Lethal gastric mucosal necrosis due to administration of oral ferrous bisglycinate chelate to suckling piglets. Journal of Comparative Pathology, 157(1):39-45.

Abstract

The oral application of a newly developed ferrous bisglycinate paste for suckling piglets at a dose of 180 mg/kg body weight led to increased death rates in 10% (n = 10) of Swiss test pig breeding farms (n = 100). Necropsy examination of suckling piglets (n = 12), selected randomly from the test farms with increased death rates, demonstrated severe gastric mucosal ulceration and necrosis. Due to the presence of crystalline iron surface coating within the gastric lesions, the iron was considered as the toxic principle and cause of death. To demonstrate the direct toxicity of ferrous bisglycinate, the paste was administered experimentally to a litter of suckling piglets (n=11). Different time points (24, 48 and 72 h post partum) and doses (180 mg/kg and 360 mg/kg) were investigated. The manufacturer's recommended dose of 180 mg/kg corresponded to approximately 36 mg Fe/kg and to 6.4 % of the acute lethal dose(50) of oral iron in rats. In all piglets the lesions were reproduced and most severe at the earliest time point (24 h post partum) and with the highest applied dose (360 mg/kg). The lesions were in accordance with those described from oral iron intoxication in man, suggesting pigs as an ideal animal model for oral iron toxicity studies. (C) 2017 Elseiver Ltd. All rights reserved.

Abstract

The oral application of a newly developed ferrous bisglycinate paste for suckling piglets at a dose of 180 mg/kg body weight led to increased death rates in 10% (n = 10) of Swiss test pig breeding farms (n = 100). Necropsy examination of suckling piglets (n = 12), selected randomly from the test farms with increased death rates, demonstrated severe gastric mucosal ulceration and necrosis. Due to the presence of crystalline iron surface coating within the gastric lesions, the iron was considered as the toxic principle and cause of death. To demonstrate the direct toxicity of ferrous bisglycinate, the paste was administered experimentally to a litter of suckling piglets (n=11). Different time points (24, 48 and 72 h post partum) and doses (180 mg/kg and 360 mg/kg) were investigated. The manufacturer's recommended dose of 180 mg/kg corresponded to approximately 36 mg Fe/kg and to 6.4 % of the acute lethal dose(50) of oral iron in rats. In all piglets the lesions were reproduced and most severe at the earliest time point (24 h post partum) and with the highest applied dose (360 mg/kg). The lesions were in accordance with those described from oral iron intoxication in man, suggesting pigs as an ideal animal model for oral iron toxicity studies. (C) 2017 Elseiver Ltd. All rights reserved.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:05 Vetsuisse Faculty > Institute of Veterinary Pharmacology and Toxicology
05 Vetsuisse Faculty > Institute of Veterinary Pathology
05 Vetsuisse Faculty > Veterinary Clinic > Department of Farm Animals
Dewey Decimal Classification:570 Life sciences; biology
Uncontrolled Keywords:iron, iron deficiency anaemia, iron paste, piglet mortality
Language:English
Date:2017
Deposited On:27 Jan 2018 11:15
Last Modified:19 Feb 2018 10:09
Publisher:Elsevier
ISSN:0021-9975
OA Status:Closed
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcpa.2017.04.004
PubMed ID:28735669

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