Haemotrophic mycoplasmas (haemoplasmas) are uncultivable, small epicellular, cell wall less, tetracycline-sensitive bacteria that attach to the surface of host erythrocytes. Today, haemotrophic mycoplasmas are found in a large number of animals, with Mycoplasma suis being the porcine pathogen. Haemoplasmas can cause infections which are clinically marked, either by an overt life-threatening haemolytic anaemia or a mild chronic anaemia, by illthrift, infertility, and immune suppression. The life cycle of haemoplasmas on the surface of nucleus-less red blood cells is unique for mycoplasma and therefore, it is evident that these haemotrophic pathogens must have features that allow them to colonise and replicate on red blood cells. However, the mechanisms of adhesion and replication of M. suis on erythrocytes, for instance, as well as the significance of metabolic interchanges between the agent and the target cells, are completely unknown to date. Far from having gained clear insight into the clinical significance of the haemoplasmas, our knowledge about the physiology, genetics, and host-pathogen interaction of this novel group of bacteria within the Mollicutes order is rather limited. This can be explained primarily by the unculturability of these bacteria. The enormous advances in molecular biology witnessed in recent years have had a major impact on several areas of biological sciences, i.e. the fields of modern medical bacteriology and infectious diseases. This review describes progress made in research of the pathobiology of M. suis these past few years.