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Feline herpesvirus pneumonia: investigations into the pathogenesis


Monne Rodriguez, Josep Maria; Leeming, Gail; Köhler, Kernt; Kipar, Anja (2017). Feline herpesvirus pneumonia: investigations into the pathogenesis. Veterinary Pathology, 54(6):922-932.

Abstract

Feline herpesvirus type 1 (FeHV-1) is one of the etiological agents of feline respiratory disease. FeHV-1 is an epitheliotropic and cytopathic virus that mainly causes rhinitis and conjunctivitis, although pneumonia is also occasionally seen. In this study, the authors investigated the pathogenesis of FeHV-1-associated pneumonia, comparing natural cases with viral infection of tracheal ring and cell cultures in vitro, using histology, immunohistology, double immunofluorescence, and transmission electron microscopy as investigative tools. The results confirm that FeHV-1 targets both respiratory epithelial cells and pneumocytes and indicate that FeHV-1 pneumonia is the consequence of continuous cell-to-cell viral spread from the upper airways via the trachea into the lungs. They provide strong evidence that FeHV-1–infected cells die primarily via apoptosis, following loss of cell-to-cell contact, rounding, and detachment. However, virus-induced lesions in vivo are dominated by marked neutrophil infiltration and extensive necrosis with less prominent apoptosis; in the airways, the tissue necrosis can extend into the submucosa. The necrosis appears to result from virus-induced neutrophil influx and release of proteolytic enzymes, such as matrix metalloproteinase-9, from the neutrophils.

Abstract

Feline herpesvirus type 1 (FeHV-1) is one of the etiological agents of feline respiratory disease. FeHV-1 is an epitheliotropic and cytopathic virus that mainly causes rhinitis and conjunctivitis, although pneumonia is also occasionally seen. In this study, the authors investigated the pathogenesis of FeHV-1-associated pneumonia, comparing natural cases with viral infection of tracheal ring and cell cultures in vitro, using histology, immunohistology, double immunofluorescence, and transmission electron microscopy as investigative tools. The results confirm that FeHV-1 targets both respiratory epithelial cells and pneumocytes and indicate that FeHV-1 pneumonia is the consequence of continuous cell-to-cell viral spread from the upper airways via the trachea into the lungs. They provide strong evidence that FeHV-1–infected cells die primarily via apoptosis, following loss of cell-to-cell contact, rounding, and detachment. However, virus-induced lesions in vivo are dominated by marked neutrophil infiltration and extensive necrosis with less prominent apoptosis; in the airways, the tissue necrosis can extend into the submucosa. The necrosis appears to result from virus-induced neutrophil influx and release of proteolytic enzymes, such as matrix metalloproteinase-9, from the neutrophils.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:05 Vetsuisse Faculty > Institute of Veterinary Pathology
Dewey Decimal Classification:570 Life sciences; biology
Uncontrolled Keywords:apoptosis, cats, cell-to-cell spread, feline herpesvirus 1, feline viral rhinotracheitis, necrosis, neutrophil influx, pathogenesis, pneumonia, respiratory diseases
Language:English
Date:16 August 2017
Deposited On:26 Jan 2018 17:21
Last Modified:19 Feb 2018 10:20
Publisher:Sage Publications Ltd.
ISSN:0300-9858
OA Status:Closed
Free access at:Publisher DOI. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1177/0300985817720982
PubMed ID:28812530

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