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Anatomic characterization of cavotricuspid isthmus by 3D transesophageal echocardiography in patients undergoing radiofrequency ablation of typical atrial flutter


Regoli, François; Faletra, Francesco; Marcon, Serena; Leo, Laura Anna; Dequarti, Maria Cristina; Caputo, Maria Luce; Conte, Giulio; Moccetti, Tiziano; Auricchio, Angelo (2018). Anatomic characterization of cavotricuspid isthmus by 3D transesophageal echocardiography in patients undergoing radiofrequency ablation of typical atrial flutter. European Heart Journal. Cardiovascular Imaging, 19(1):84-91.

Abstract

Aims Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is the treatment of choice of cavotricuspid isthmus (CTI)-dependent atrial flutter. Procedural time is highly variable due to anatomical structures. This study aimed to characterize CTI anatomy by transesophageal 3D echocardiography imaging (3D-TEE) to identify anatomic structures related to longer ablation time. Methods and results Thirty-one consecutive patients (mean age 67.3 ± 11.5 years, 22 males) underwent CTI-ablation procedure. Before ablation, TEE was performed and 3D-TEE images were acquired to evaluate CTI anatomy qualitatively as well as perform measures of CTI morphological features. The electrophysiologist performing RFA was blinded to 3D-TEE data. Bidirectional block of CTI was achieved in all patients without procedural complications after a median ablation time of 11 (IQR 7-14) min. Patients with RFA time ≥11 min (Group 2) presented lower left ventricular ejection fraction (51.1 ± 17.0 vs. 59.5 ± 6.6%, P < 0.010), a larger left atrium (46.2 ± 8.4 vs. 39.9 ± 9.4 mm, P < 0.058), and, more frequently, a right atrial pouch (12/16 patients vs. 4/15, P = 0.012) compared with patients with RFA time < 11 min (Group 1); CTI pouch was significantly deeper in Group 2 compared with Group 1: telediastolic (TD) pouch depth was 10.4 ± 4.5 vs. 6.3 ± 1.5 mm (P = 0.003) and telesystolic (TS) depth 12.8 ± 4.4 vs. 7.0 ± 1.4 mm (P < 0.001), respectively. TD isthmus length, prominent pectinate muscle, and presence of an Eustachian ridge (ER) did not differ between the two groups. Conclusion Routine pre-procedural 3D-TEE imaging is extremely helpful in qualitative and quantitative evaluation of CTI anatomy in patients undergoing RFA for symptomatic typical atrial flutter. Detection of a deep right atrial pouch was found to be associated with significantly prolonged CTI ablation time to achieve bidirectional block.

Abstract

Aims Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is the treatment of choice of cavotricuspid isthmus (CTI)-dependent atrial flutter. Procedural time is highly variable due to anatomical structures. This study aimed to characterize CTI anatomy by transesophageal 3D echocardiography imaging (3D-TEE) to identify anatomic structures related to longer ablation time. Methods and results Thirty-one consecutive patients (mean age 67.3 ± 11.5 years, 22 males) underwent CTI-ablation procedure. Before ablation, TEE was performed and 3D-TEE images were acquired to evaluate CTI anatomy qualitatively as well as perform measures of CTI morphological features. The electrophysiologist performing RFA was blinded to 3D-TEE data. Bidirectional block of CTI was achieved in all patients without procedural complications after a median ablation time of 11 (IQR 7-14) min. Patients with RFA time ≥11 min (Group 2) presented lower left ventricular ejection fraction (51.1 ± 17.0 vs. 59.5 ± 6.6%, P < 0.010), a larger left atrium (46.2 ± 8.4 vs. 39.9 ± 9.4 mm, P < 0.058), and, more frequently, a right atrial pouch (12/16 patients vs. 4/15, P = 0.012) compared with patients with RFA time < 11 min (Group 1); CTI pouch was significantly deeper in Group 2 compared with Group 1: telediastolic (TD) pouch depth was 10.4 ± 4.5 vs. 6.3 ± 1.5 mm (P = 0.003) and telesystolic (TS) depth 12.8 ± 4.4 vs. 7.0 ± 1.4 mm (P < 0.001), respectively. TD isthmus length, prominent pectinate muscle, and presence of an Eustachian ridge (ER) did not differ between the two groups. Conclusion Routine pre-procedural 3D-TEE imaging is extremely helpful in qualitative and quantitative evaluation of CTI anatomy in patients undergoing RFA for symptomatic typical atrial flutter. Detection of a deep right atrial pouch was found to be associated with significantly prolonged CTI ablation time to achieve bidirectional block.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > Cardiocentro Ticino
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Language:English
Date:1 January 2018
Deposited On:02 Feb 2018 11:56
Last Modified:20 Feb 2018 09:02
Publisher:Oxford University Press
ISSN:2047-2404
OA Status:Hybrid
Free access at:Publisher DOI. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1093/ehjci/jew336
PubMed ID:28180237

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