Alicaforsen is a 20-base antisense oligonucleotide inhibiting ICAM-1 production, which is an important adhesion molecule involved in leukocyte migration and trafficking to the site of inflammation. Hitherto, alicaforsen has been granted orphan drug designation and is prescribed as an unlicensed medicine in accordance with international regulation for the treatment of pouchitis and left-sided ulcerative colitis. Given the positive results evolving from one open-label trial and one case series in patients with chronic refractory pouchitis, US FDA has agreed to a rolling submission for a license application for the treatment of pouchitis, which has been recently initiated. Whether alicaforsen leads to higher endoscopic and clinical remission rates as placebo and whether the response can be maintained in the long-term in larger studies is yet unknown. An ongoing multicenter international Phase III trial will definitely address these unanswered questions.