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Congenital occipitoatlantoaxial malformation in a Warmblood mare


Brünisholz, H P; Wildhaber, N; Hoey, S; Ruetten, Maja; Boos, Alois; Kümmerle, Jan M (2017). Congenital occipitoatlantoaxial malformation in a Warmblood mare. Equine Veterinary Education:Epub ahead of print.

Abstract

A 3-year-old Warmblood mare was presented with spinal ataxia of 3 months’ duration. Clinically, reduced mobility of
the neck and a prominent atlas were identified. Neurological evaluation revealed hypermetria, circumduction and
reduced proprioception, predominantly in the hindlimbs. Occipitoatlantoaxial malformation (OAAM) was diagnosed
based on radiography and computed tomography, and confirmed on post-mortem magnetic resonance imaging and
pathological examination. Both the atlas and axis were hypoplastic and dysplastic, and a fusion of the atlantooccipital
joint was found. A dynamic compression of the spinal cord was present at the first and second cervical
vertebrae. Histologically, the spinal cord was degenerated due to compression. Furthermore, there were muscular
malformations including a fibrotic obliquus capitis cranialis muscle, aplasia of parts of the rectus capitis muscles and
presence of additional abnormal muscle. Such muscular abnormalities associated with OAAM have not been reported
yet and this is the first report of a case of OAAM in a Warmblood horse.

Abstract

A 3-year-old Warmblood mare was presented with spinal ataxia of 3 months’ duration. Clinically, reduced mobility of
the neck and a prominent atlas were identified. Neurological evaluation revealed hypermetria, circumduction and
reduced proprioception, predominantly in the hindlimbs. Occipitoatlantoaxial malformation (OAAM) was diagnosed
based on radiography and computed tomography, and confirmed on post-mortem magnetic resonance imaging and
pathological examination. Both the atlas and axis were hypoplastic and dysplastic, and a fusion of the atlantooccipital
joint was found. A dynamic compression of the spinal cord was present at the first and second cervical
vertebrae. Histologically, the spinal cord was degenerated due to compression. Furthermore, there were muscular
malformations including a fibrotic obliquus capitis cranialis muscle, aplasia of parts of the rectus capitis muscles and
presence of additional abnormal muscle. Such muscular abnormalities associated with OAAM have not been reported
yet and this is the first report of a case of OAAM in a Warmblood horse.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:05 Vetsuisse Faculty > Institute of Veterinary Anatomy
05 Vetsuisse Faculty > Veterinary Clinic > Equine Department
Dewey Decimal Classification:570 Life sciences; biology
Language:English
Date:2017
Deposited On:28 Jan 2018 20:07
Last Modified:19 Feb 2018 10:30
Publisher:Wiley-Blackwell Publishing, Inc.
ISSN:0957-7734
OA Status:Closed
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1111/eve.12789

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