An outbreak of classical swine fever in wild boar in the southern part of Switzerland (Canton of Ticino) was investigated after the implementation of control measures in a defined infected area (the risk zone), and in a surrounding surveillance zone (the non-risk zone). After the disease had been detected, hunting was not allowed in the risk zone for over six months, during which the disease was left to run its course, but hunting was continued in the non-risk zone for one month. After seven months, a hunting strategy targeted at young animals was implemented in both zones. Between May 1998 and January 2000,1294 wild boar were shot or found dead, and diagnostic and biological data were collected and analysed. Only one animal from the non-risk zone was found to be seropositive for antibodies to the virus, whereas 179 of 528 wild boar from the risk zone were virus positive and 162 were seropositive. The proportion of virus-positive animals decreased from 62.7 per cent to zero over one year. During the first hunting season, seropositive animals were found in all age groups, but 12 months later only animals more than one year old had antibodies against the virus.