Several recent key findings in immunology of allergic diseases that have led to a need of reassessment of our current thinking are reviewed in this issue of the journal. Recently developed strong evidence on the role of hygiene hypothesis in protection from allergic disease and its immune mechanisms is reviewed by Ober et al. The authors pointed out immunologic mechanisms of lower prevalence of asthma and allergic sensitization observed among Amish children living on traditional farms with higher endotoxin levels as compared to Hutterite children living on industrialized farms. Barcik et al. reviewed that biologically active histamine in humans is produced by certain bacteria in the gut in addition to several cells, and has broad immunoregulatory functions. Turcanu et al. reviewed immune mechanisms of a revolutionary change to protect from food allergy. The immunologic window of opportunity in the infants can be used to enable oral tolerance in severe allergy predisposed children. Accordingly, van de Veen et al. reviewed general mechanisms of allergen tolerance highlighting recent findings. Extensive usage of precision medicine due to emerging biologics is knocking the doors of allergic diseases and asthma. Boyd et al. reviewed the existing and future "immune monitoring" approaches in the multiple omics perspective with the hope of identifying better correlates of disease status, predictors of therapeutic outcomes, and potential side-effects of treatment. Paul et al. reviewed newly uncovered innate and adaptive immunologic mechanisms that contribute to the pathogenesis of eosinophilic esophagitis. Further highlighting newly developing disease subgroups and precision medicine, Guttman-Yassky & Kruger reviewed clinical subtypes of atopic dermatitis and psoriasis, which may potentially benefit from newly developing highly efficient biologicals. Complementing this paper, Kabashima & Nomura reviewed similarities and distinctions in mouse models of atopic dermatitis and psoriasis.