The liver is the only organ in mammals that fully regenerates even after major injury. To identify orchestrators of this regenerative response, we performed quantitative large-scale proteomics analysis of cytoplasmic and nuclear fractions from normal versus regenerating mouse liver. Proteins of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway were rapidly upregulated after two-third hepatectomy, with the ubiquitin ligase Nedd4-1 being a top hit. In vivo knockdown of Nedd4-1 in hepatocytes through nanoparticle-mediated delivery of small interfering RNA caused severe liver damage and inhibition of cell proliferation after hepatectomy, resulting in liver failure. Mechanistically, we demonstrate that Nedd4-1 is required for efficient internalization of major growth factor receptors involved in liver regeneration and their downstream mitogenic signaling. These results highlight the power of large-scale proteomics to identify key players in liver regeneration and the importance of posttranslational regulation of growth factor signaling in this process. Finally, they identify an essential function of Nedd4-1 in tissue repair.