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Effect of hypoxia and hyperoxia on exercise performance in healthy individuals and in patients with pulmonary hypertension: A systematic review


Ulrich, Silvia; Schneider, Simon Raphael; Bloch, Konrad E (2017). Effect of hypoxia and hyperoxia on exercise performance in healthy individuals and in patients with pulmonary hypertension: A systematic review. Journal of Applied Physiology:jap.00186.2017.

Abstract

Exercise performance is determined by oxygen supply to working muscles and vital organs. In healthy individuals, exercise performance is limited in the hypoxic environment at altitude, when oxygen delivery is diminished due to the reduced alveolar and arterial oxygen partial pressures. In patients with pulmonary hypertension, exercise performance is already reduced near sea level due to impairments of the pulmonary circulation and gas exchange and, presumably, these limitations are more pronounced at altitude. In studies performed near sea level in healthy subjects as well as in patients with pulmonary hypertension (PH) maximal performance during progressive ramp exercise and endurance of submaximal constant load exercise were substantially enhanced by breathing oxygen-enriched air. Both in healthy individuals and in PH-patients these improvements were mediated by a better arterial, muscular and cerebral oxygenation along with a reduced sympathetic excitation, as suggested by the reduced heart rate and alveolar ventilation at submaximal isoloads, and an improved pulmonary gas exchange efficiency, especially in patients with PH. In summary, in healthy individuals and in patients with pulmonary hypertension, alterations in the inspiratory PO2 by exposure to hypobaric hypoxia or normobaric hyperoxia reduce or enhance exercise performance, respectively, by modifying oxygen delivery to the muscles and the brain, by effects on cardiovascular and respiratory control and by alterations in pulmonary gas exchange. The understanding of these physiologic mechanisms helps counselling individuals planning altitude or air travel and prescribing oxygen therapy to patients with pulmonary hypertension.

Abstract

Exercise performance is determined by oxygen supply to working muscles and vital organs. In healthy individuals, exercise performance is limited in the hypoxic environment at altitude, when oxygen delivery is diminished due to the reduced alveolar and arterial oxygen partial pressures. In patients with pulmonary hypertension, exercise performance is already reduced near sea level due to impairments of the pulmonary circulation and gas exchange and, presumably, these limitations are more pronounced at altitude. In studies performed near sea level in healthy subjects as well as in patients with pulmonary hypertension (PH) maximal performance during progressive ramp exercise and endurance of submaximal constant load exercise were substantially enhanced by breathing oxygen-enriched air. Both in healthy individuals and in PH-patients these improvements were mediated by a better arterial, muscular and cerebral oxygenation along with a reduced sympathetic excitation, as suggested by the reduced heart rate and alveolar ventilation at submaximal isoloads, and an improved pulmonary gas exchange efficiency, especially in patients with PH. In summary, in healthy individuals and in patients with pulmonary hypertension, alterations in the inspiratory PO2 by exposure to hypobaric hypoxia or normobaric hyperoxia reduce or enhance exercise performance, respectively, by modifying oxygen delivery to the muscles and the brain, by effects on cardiovascular and respiratory control and by alterations in pulmonary gas exchange. The understanding of these physiologic mechanisms helps counselling individuals planning altitude or air travel and prescribing oxygen therapy to patients with pulmonary hypertension.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, further contribution
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > University Hospital Zurich > Clinic for Pneumology
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Language:English
Date:3 August 2017
Deposited On:23 Jan 2018 14:51
Last Modified:19 Feb 2018 10:36
Publisher:American Physiological Society
ISSN:0161-7567
OA Status:Green
Free access at:Publisher DOI. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.00186.2017
PubMed ID:28775065

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