OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to assess indications, procedural success, complications, echocardiographic, and clinical outcomes of percutaneous pulmonary valve implantation (PPVI) in adult patients with congenital heart disease (CHD).
BACKGROUND: PPVI offers a non-surgical treatment option for failing prosthetic conduits in pulmonary position. However, efficacy and clinical outcomes after PPVI are still underreported.
METHODS: From January 2008 to March 2016, 25 adult CHD patients with right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) stenosis and/or pulmonary regurgitation underwent PPVI in our institution. Clinical and echocardiographic data was collected at baseline, at 12 months of follow-up and yearly afterwards.
RESULTS: Tetralogy of Fallot and repaired pulmonary atresia were among the most prevalent underlying congenital defects. Twenty-one (84%) received a Medtronic Melody® and four (16%) patients an Edwards Sapien valve prosthesis. The PPVI procedure was successful in all 25 patients. Pre-stenting was performed in all but two (8%) patients. PPVI reduced peak-to-peak pulmonary valve gradient from 43 (IQR 28-60) mmHg to 16 (IQR 14-22) mmHg (P < 0.001). Periprocedural complications occurred in two (8%) patients (tricuspid valve damage, pulmonary artery perforation). Over a median follow-up of 43 (IQR 18-58) months all patients were alive. Only two (8%) required re-operation and two (8%) developed stent fractures (one of them had not undergone pre-stenting). NYHA functional class improved significantly, with 20 (80%) patients in NYHA class I on follow-up.
CONCLUSIONS: PPVI with Medtronic Melody or Edwards Sapien valve conduits is safe and provides effective relief from right ventricular outflow tract obstruction or pulmonary regurgitation.