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Mutations in the Human Argininosuccinate Synthetase (ASS1) Gene, Impact on Patients, Common Changes, and Structural Considerations


Diez-Fernandez, Carmen; Rüfenacht, Véronique; Häberle, Johannes (2017). Mutations in the Human Argininosuccinate Synthetase (ASS1) Gene, Impact on Patients, Common Changes, and Structural Considerations. Human Mutation, 38(5):471-484.

Abstract

Citrullinemia type 1 is an autosomal recessive urea cycle disorder caused by defects in the argininosuccinate synthetase (ASS) enzyme due to mutations in ASS1 gene. An impairment of ASS function can lead to a wide spectrum of phenotypes, from life-threatening neonatal hyperammonemia to a later onset with mild symptoms, and even some asymptomatic patients exhibiting an only biochemical phenotype. The disease is panethnic. In this update, we report 137 mutations (64 of which are novel), consisting of 89 missense mutations, 19 nonsense mutations, 17 mutations that affect splicing, and 12 deletions. The change p.Gly390Arg is by far the most common mutation and is widely spread throughout the world. Other frequent mutations (p.Arg157His, p.Trp179Arg, p.Val263Met, p.Arg304Trp, p.Gly324Ser, p.Gly362Val, and p.Arg363Trp), each found in at least 12 independent families, are mainly carried by patients from the Indian subcontinent, Turkey, Germany, and Japan. To better understand the disease, we collected clinical data of >360 patients, including all published information available. This information is related to the patients' genetic background, the conservation of the mutated residues and a structural rationalization of the effect of the most frequent mutations. In addition, we review ASS regulation, animal models, diagnostic strategies, newborn screening, and treatment options.

Abstract

Citrullinemia type 1 is an autosomal recessive urea cycle disorder caused by defects in the argininosuccinate synthetase (ASS) enzyme due to mutations in ASS1 gene. An impairment of ASS function can lead to a wide spectrum of phenotypes, from life-threatening neonatal hyperammonemia to a later onset with mild symptoms, and even some asymptomatic patients exhibiting an only biochemical phenotype. The disease is panethnic. In this update, we report 137 mutations (64 of which are novel), consisting of 89 missense mutations, 19 nonsense mutations, 17 mutations that affect splicing, and 12 deletions. The change p.Gly390Arg is by far the most common mutation and is widely spread throughout the world. Other frequent mutations (p.Arg157His, p.Trp179Arg, p.Val263Met, p.Arg304Trp, p.Gly324Ser, p.Gly362Val, and p.Arg363Trp), each found in at least 12 independent families, are mainly carried by patients from the Indian subcontinent, Turkey, Germany, and Japan. To better understand the disease, we collected clinical data of >360 patients, including all published information available. This information is related to the patients' genetic background, the conservation of the mutated residues and a structural rationalization of the effect of the most frequent mutations. In addition, we review ASS regulation, animal models, diagnostic strategies, newborn screening, and treatment options.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > University Children's Hospital Zurich > Medical Clinic
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Uncontrolled Keywords:Genetics(clinical), Genetics
Language:English
Date:May 2017
Deposited On:30 Jan 2018 08:09
Last Modified:19 Aug 2018 13:25
Publisher:Wiley-Blackwell Publishing, Inc.
ISSN:1059-7794
OA Status:Closed
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1002/humu.23184
PubMed ID:28111830
Project Information:
  • : FunderSNSF
  • : Grant ID310030-107500
  • : Project TitleBiochemistry and neuropathophysiology of tetrahydrobiopterin metabolism and deficiencies
  • : FunderSNSF
  • : Grant ID310030_153196
  • : Project TitleUrea cycle disorders: the molecular basis and pathology of phenotypic variability

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