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Aspects of tryptophan and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide in immunity a new twist in an old tale


Rodriguez Cetina Biefer, Hector; Vasudevan, Anju; Elkhal, Abdallah (2017). Aspects of tryptophan and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide in immunity a new twist in an old tale. International Journal of Tryptophan Research, 10:117864691771349.

Abstract

Increasing evidence underscores the interesting ability of tryptophan to regulate immune responses. However, the exact mechanisms of tryptophan's immune regulation remain to be determined. Tryptophan catabolism via the kynurenine pathway is known to play an important role in tryptophan's involvement in immune responses. Interestingly, quinolinic acid, which is a neurotoxic catabolite of the kynurenine pathway, is the major pathway for the de novo synthesis of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+). Recent studies have shown that NAD+, a natural coenzyme found in all living cells, regulates immune responses and creates homeostasis via a novel signaling pathway. More importantly, the immunoregulatory properties of NAD+ are strongly related to the overexpression of tryptophan hydroxylase 1 (Tph1). This review provides recent knowledge of tryptophan and NAD+ and their specific and intriguing roles in the immune system. Furthermore, it focuses on the mechanisms by which tryptophan regulates NAD+ synthesis as well as innate and adaptive immune responses.

Abstract

Increasing evidence underscores the interesting ability of tryptophan to regulate immune responses. However, the exact mechanisms of tryptophan's immune regulation remain to be determined. Tryptophan catabolism via the kynurenine pathway is known to play an important role in tryptophan's involvement in immune responses. Interestingly, quinolinic acid, which is a neurotoxic catabolite of the kynurenine pathway, is the major pathway for the de novo synthesis of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+). Recent studies have shown that NAD+, a natural coenzyme found in all living cells, regulates immune responses and creates homeostasis via a novel signaling pathway. More importantly, the immunoregulatory properties of NAD+ are strongly related to the overexpression of tryptophan hydroxylase 1 (Tph1). This review provides recent knowledge of tryptophan and NAD+ and their specific and intriguing roles in the immune system. Furthermore, it focuses on the mechanisms by which tryptophan regulates NAD+ synthesis as well as innate and adaptive immune responses.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > University Hospital Zurich > Clinic for Cardiovascular Surgery
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Uncontrolled Keywords:Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, , NAD+, , Immune Responses, , Tryptophan, , Kynurenine pathway
Language:English
Date:2017
Deposited On:01 Feb 2018 19:40
Last Modified:01 Mar 2018 01:55
Publisher:Libertas Academica
ISSN:1178-6469
OA Status:Gold
Free access at:PubMed ID. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1177/1178646917713491
PubMed ID:28659716

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