All belligerent colonial powers enlisted Africans for fighting, and as carriers and war workers in African, European and Middle Eastern theatres of war. Despite the fact that universal compulsory military service did not apply to African subjects, a considerable share of the more than two million men recruited did not enlist voluntarily. Recruitment thus faced countless forms of opposition, including bribery, malingering and self-mutilation as well as hiding or flight to other territories. Many recruits deserted as soon as the opportunity arose. Last but not least, a considerable number of the many armed revolts in wartime Africa against colonial rule can be linked to forced recruitment.