The aim of the present systematic review was to assess the survival of implants in regenerated bone applying the method of guided bone regeneration (GBR) compared with the survival of implants in non-regenerated bone. Studies to be included in this review needed to provide at least 12-month results following prosthetic reconstruction of titanium implants in bone regenerated by GBR with or without membrane supporting materials. The outcome measures were implant survival described as presence of implant, implant success (according to the criteria in the respective study), absence of clinical implant mobility, absence of implant fracture, absence of progressive peri-implant crestal bone loss as assessed on radiographs without clinical signs of peri-implant infection, absence of peri-implant infection with suppuration. A MEDLINE search and a hand search of relevant scientific journals were conducted including studies from the year 1990 to May 2001. A total of 11 studies could be identified fulfilling the inclusion criteria. All studies except two had the characteristics of case series or cross-sectional surveys. The two different studies had both test and control implants included in their analysis and qualified as controlled clinical trials. Cumulative success or survival rates, respectively, for implants in regenerated bone ranged from 100% after 5 years to 79.4% after 5 years of function. Regarding survival data, no significant differences were found in the controlled clinical trials between implants in regenerated compared to implants in non-regenerated bone. Within the limits of this systematic review characterized by second and third levels of evidence, the following conclusions can be drawn: The survival rate of implants placed into sites with regenerated/augmented bone using barrier membranes varied between 79% and 100% with the majority of studies indicating more than 90% after at least one year of function. The survival rates obtained in the present systematic review are similar to those generally reported for implants placed conventionally into sites without the need for bone augmentation.