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Limitations of galactose therapy in phosphoglucomutase 1 deficiency


Abstract

INTRODUCTION: Phosphoglucomutase 1 deficiency (PGM1 deficiency) has been identified as both, glycogenosis and congenital disorder of glycosylation (CDG). The phenotype includes hepatopathy, myopathy, oropharyngeal malformations, heart disease and growth retardation. Oral galactose supplementation at a dosage of 1 g per kg body weight per day is regarded as the therapy of choice.
RESULTS: We report on a patient with a novel disease causing mutation, who was treated for 1.5 years with oral galactose supplementation. Initially, elevated transaminases were reduced and protein glycosylation of serum transferrin improved rapidly. Long-term surveillance however indicated limitations of galactose supplementation at the standard dose: 1 g per kg body weight per day did not achieve permanent correction of protein glycosylation. Even increased doses of up to 2.5 g per kg body weight did not result in complete normalization. Furthermore, we described for the first time heart rhythm abnormalities, i.e. long QT Syndrome associated with a glycosylation disorder. Mass spectrometry of IGFBP3, which was assumed to play a major role in growth retardation associated with PGM1 deficiency, revealed no glycosylation abnormalities. Growth rate did not improve under galactose supplementation.
CONCLUSIONS: The results of our study indicate that the current standard dose of galactose might be too low to achieve normal glycosylation in all patients. In addition, growth retardation in PGM1 deficiency is complex and multifactorial. Furthermore, heart rhythm abnormalities must be considered when treating patients with PGM1 deficiency.

Abstract

INTRODUCTION: Phosphoglucomutase 1 deficiency (PGM1 deficiency) has been identified as both, glycogenosis and congenital disorder of glycosylation (CDG). The phenotype includes hepatopathy, myopathy, oropharyngeal malformations, heart disease and growth retardation. Oral galactose supplementation at a dosage of 1 g per kg body weight per day is regarded as the therapy of choice.
RESULTS: We report on a patient with a novel disease causing mutation, who was treated for 1.5 years with oral galactose supplementation. Initially, elevated transaminases were reduced and protein glycosylation of serum transferrin improved rapidly. Long-term surveillance however indicated limitations of galactose supplementation at the standard dose: 1 g per kg body weight per day did not achieve permanent correction of protein glycosylation. Even increased doses of up to 2.5 g per kg body weight did not result in complete normalization. Furthermore, we described for the first time heart rhythm abnormalities, i.e. long QT Syndrome associated with a glycosylation disorder. Mass spectrometry of IGFBP3, which was assumed to play a major role in growth retardation associated with PGM1 deficiency, revealed no glycosylation abnormalities. Growth rate did not improve under galactose supplementation.
CONCLUSIONS: The results of our study indicate that the current standard dose of galactose might be too low to achieve normal glycosylation in all patients. In addition, growth retardation in PGM1 deficiency is complex and multifactorial. Furthermore, heart rhythm abnormalities must be considered when treating patients with PGM1 deficiency.

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Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > University Children's Hospital Zurich > Medical Clinic
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Language:English
Date:December 2017
Deposited On:02 Feb 2018 13:47
Last Modified:01 Mar 2018 01:56
Publisher:Elsevier
ISSN:2214-4269
OA Status:Gold
Free access at:PubMed ID. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ymgmr.2017.07.010
Related URLs:https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5540825/
PubMed ID:28794993
Other Identification Number:PMCID: PMC5540825

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