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Reward, value, and salience


Kahnt, Thorsten; Tobler, Philippe N (2017). Reward, value, and salience. In: Dreher, Jean-Claude; Tremblay, Léon. Decision Neuroscience. Amsterdam: Elsevier, 109-120.

Abstract

Value and salience are key variables for associative learning, decision-making, and attention. In this chapter we review definitions of value and salience, and describe human neuroimaging studies that dissociate these variables. Value increases with the magnitude and probability of reward but decreases with the magnitude and probability of punishment, whereas salience increases with the magnitude and probability of both reward and punishment. Moreover, salience may be particularly enhanced in situations with probabilistic as opposed to safe outcomes. At the behavioral level, both value and salience independently accelerate behavior. At the neural level, value signals arise in striatum, orbitofrontal and ventromedial prefrontal cortex, and superior parietal areas, whereas magnitude-based salience signals arise in the anterior cingulate cortex and the inferior parietal cortex. By contrast, probability-based salience signals have been found in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex. In conclusion, the related nature of value and salience stresses the importance of disentangling both variables experimentally.

Abstract

Value and salience are key variables for associative learning, decision-making, and attention. In this chapter we review definitions of value and salience, and describe human neuroimaging studies that dissociate these variables. Value increases with the magnitude and probability of reward but decreases with the magnitude and probability of punishment, whereas salience increases with the magnitude and probability of both reward and punishment. Moreover, salience may be particularly enhanced in situations with probabilistic as opposed to safe outcomes. At the behavioral level, both value and salience independently accelerate behavior. At the neural level, value signals arise in striatum, orbitofrontal and ventromedial prefrontal cortex, and superior parietal areas, whereas magnitude-based salience signals arise in the anterior cingulate cortex and the inferior parietal cortex. By contrast, probability-based salience signals have been found in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex. In conclusion, the related nature of value and salience stresses the importance of disentangling both variables experimentally.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Book Section, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:03 Faculty of Economics > Department of Economics
Dewey Decimal Classification:330 Economics
Scopus Subject Areas:Health Sciences > General Medicine
Life Sciences > General Neuroscience
Uncontrolled Keywords:Associative learning, attention, FMRI, magnitude, probability, punishment, reward, salience, value
Language:English
Date:2017
Deposited On:09 Feb 2018 08:49
Last Modified:08 Apr 2020 23:03
Publisher:Elsevier
ISBN:9780128053089
Additional Information:Chapter 9
OA Status:Green
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-805308-9.00009-9
Related URLs:https://www.scholars.northwestern.edu/en/publications/reward-value-and-salience

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