Renal phosphate handling critically determines plasma phosphate and whole body phosphate levels. Filtered phosphate is mostly reabsorbed by Na+-dependent phosphate transporters located in the brush border membrane of the proximal tubule: NaPi-IIa (SLC34A1), NaPi-IIc (SLC34A3), and Pit-2 (SLC20A2). Here we review new evidence for the role and relevance of these transporters in inherited disorders of renal phosphate handling. The importance of NaPi-IIa and NaPi-IIc for renal phosphate reabsorption and mineral homeostasis has been highlighted by the identification of mutations in these transporters in a subset of patients with infantile idiopathic hypercalcemia and patients with hereditary hypophosphatemic rickets with hypercalciuria. Both diseases are characterized by disturbed calcium homeostasis secondary to elevated 1,25-(OH)2 vitamin D3 as a consequence of hypophosphatemia. In vitro analysis of mutated NaPi-IIa or NaPi-IIc transporters suggests defective trafficking underlying disease in most cases. Monoallelic pathogenic mutations in both SLC34A1 and SLC34A3 appear to be very frequent in the general population and have been associated with kidney stones. Consistent with these findings, results from genome-wide association studies indicate that variants in SLC34A1 are associated with a higher risk to develop kidney stones and chronic kidney disease, but underlying mechanisms have not been addressed to date.