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Mechanisms of immune regulation in allergic diseases: the role of regulatory T and B cells


Palomares, Oscar; Akdis, Mübeccel; Martín-Fontecha, Mar; Akdis, Cezmi A (2017). Mechanisms of immune regulation in allergic diseases: the role of regulatory T and B cells. Immunological Reviews, 278(1):219-236.

Abstract

Allergy is a major public health problem with a high socio-economic impact. The number of allergic patients is expected to reach to four billion within two decades when the World's population reaches to 10 billion. Our knowledge on the molecular mechanisms underlying allergic diseases and allergen tolerance induction had significant advances during the last years. Nowadays, it is well accepted that the generation and maintenance of allergen-specific regulatory T cells (Tregs) and regulatory B cells (Bregs) and the involvement of their suppressive cytokines and surface molecules are essential for the induction of allergen tolerance. These mechanisms play essential roles for the restoration of healthy immune responses to allergens in allergen-specific immunotherapy (AIT) and healthy immune response during high-dose antigen exposure in beekeepers and cat owners. AIT remains as the only disease-modifying and curative treatment for allergic diseases and represents a perfect model to investigate the antigen-specific immune responses in humans. A large number of clinical trials demonstrated AIT as an effective treatment in many patients, but it still faces several drawbacks in relation to efficacy, safety, long duration, and patient adherence. Novel strategies to overcome these inconveniences, such as the development of novel adjuvants and alternative routes of administration are being developed. The better understanding of the molecular mechanism governing the generation of Treg and Breg cells during allergen tolerance might well open new avenues for alternative therapeutic interventions in allergic diseases and help better understanding of other immune-tolerance-related diseases.

Abstract

Allergy is a major public health problem with a high socio-economic impact. The number of allergic patients is expected to reach to four billion within two decades when the World's population reaches to 10 billion. Our knowledge on the molecular mechanisms underlying allergic diseases and allergen tolerance induction had significant advances during the last years. Nowadays, it is well accepted that the generation and maintenance of allergen-specific regulatory T cells (Tregs) and regulatory B cells (Bregs) and the involvement of their suppressive cytokines and surface molecules are essential for the induction of allergen tolerance. These mechanisms play essential roles for the restoration of healthy immune responses to allergens in allergen-specific immunotherapy (AIT) and healthy immune response during high-dose antigen exposure in beekeepers and cat owners. AIT remains as the only disease-modifying and curative treatment for allergic diseases and represents a perfect model to investigate the antigen-specific immune responses in humans. A large number of clinical trials demonstrated AIT as an effective treatment in many patients, but it still faces several drawbacks in relation to efficacy, safety, long duration, and patient adherence. Novel strategies to overcome these inconveniences, such as the development of novel adjuvants and alternative routes of administration are being developed. The better understanding of the molecular mechanism governing the generation of Treg and Breg cells during allergen tolerance might well open new avenues for alternative therapeutic interventions in allergic diseases and help better understanding of other immune-tolerance-related diseases.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, further contribution
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > Swiss Institute of Allergy and Asthma Research
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Language:English
Date:July 2017
Deposited On:23 Feb 2018 19:24
Last Modified:19 Aug 2018 14:21
Publisher:Wiley-Blackwell Publishing, Inc.
ISSN:0105-2896
OA Status:Closed
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1111/imr.12555
PubMed ID:28658547
Project Information:
  • : FunderFP7
  • : Grant ID260895
  • : Project TitlePREDICTA - Post-infectious immune reprogramming and its association with persistence and chronicity of respiratory allergic diseases
  • : FunderFP7
  • : Grant ID261357
  • : Project TitleMEDALL - Mechanisms of the Development of ALLergy

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