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The 5-phosphatase OCRL in Lowe syndrome and Dent disease 2


De Matteis, Maria Antonietta; Staiano, Leopoldo; Emma, Francesco; Devuyst, Olivier (2017). The 5-phosphatase OCRL in Lowe syndrome and Dent disease 2. Nature Reviews. Nephrology, 13(8):455-470.

Abstract

Lowe syndrome is an X-linked disease that is characterized by congenital cataracts, central hypotonia, intellectual disability and renal Fanconi syndrome. The disease is caused by mutations in OCRL, which encodes an inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatase (OCRL) that acts on phosphoinositides - quantitatively minor constituents of cell membranes that are nonetheless pivotal regulators of intracellular trafficking. In this Review we summarize the considerable progress made over the past decade in understanding the cellular roles of OCRL in regulating phosphoinositide balance along the endolysosomal pathway, a fundamental system for the reabsorption of proteins and solutes by proximal tubular cells. We discuss how studies of OCRL have led to important discoveries about the basic mechanisms of membrane trafficking and describe the key features and limitations of the currently available animal models of Lowe syndrome. Mutations in OCRL can also give rise to a milder pathology, Dent disease 2, which is characterized by renal Fanconi syndrome in the absence of extrarenal pathologies. Understanding how mutations in OCRL give rise to two clinical entities with differing extrarenal manifestations represents an opportunity to identify molecular pathways that could be targeted to develop treatments for these conditions.

Abstract

Lowe syndrome is an X-linked disease that is characterized by congenital cataracts, central hypotonia, intellectual disability and renal Fanconi syndrome. The disease is caused by mutations in OCRL, which encodes an inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatase (OCRL) that acts on phosphoinositides - quantitatively minor constituents of cell membranes that are nonetheless pivotal regulators of intracellular trafficking. In this Review we summarize the considerable progress made over the past decade in understanding the cellular roles of OCRL in regulating phosphoinositide balance along the endolysosomal pathway, a fundamental system for the reabsorption of proteins and solutes by proximal tubular cells. We discuss how studies of OCRL have led to important discoveries about the basic mechanisms of membrane trafficking and describe the key features and limitations of the currently available animal models of Lowe syndrome. Mutations in OCRL can also give rise to a milder pathology, Dent disease 2, which is characterized by renal Fanconi syndrome in the absence of extrarenal pathologies. Understanding how mutations in OCRL give rise to two clinical entities with differing extrarenal manifestations represents an opportunity to identify molecular pathways that could be targeted to develop treatments for these conditions.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, further contribution
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > Institute of Physiology
07 Faculty of Science > Institute of Physiology
Dewey Decimal Classification:570 Life sciences; biology
610 Medicine & health
Language:English
Date:2017
Deposited On:20 Feb 2018 15:21
Last Modified:14 Mar 2018 17:51
Publisher:Nature Publishing Group
ISSN:1759-5061
OA Status:Closed
Free access at:PubMed ID. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1038/nrneph.2017.83
PubMed ID:28669993

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