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Sleep‐wake neurochemistry


Holst, Sebastian C; Landolt, Hans-Peter (2018). Sleep‐wake neurochemistry. Sleep Medicine Clinics, 13(2):137-146.

Abstract

Behavioral states alternate between wakefulness and sleep, which is further subdivided into rapid‐eye‐movement sleep and non‐rapid‐eye‐movement sleep. Waking and sleep states are highly complex processes that are elegantly orchestrated by fine‐tuned neurochemical changes, including the neurotransmitters and neuromodulators glutamate, acetylcholine, γ‐amino‐butyric acid, norepinephrine, dopamine, serotonin, histamine, hypocretin, melanin concentrating hormone, adenosine, and melatonin. However, as highlighted in this brief overview, no single neurotransmitter or neuromodulator, but rather their complex interactions within organized neuronal ensembles, regulate waking and sleep states and drive their transitions. Dysregulation of and medications interfering with these neurochemical systems lead to sleep‐wake disorders and functional changes of wakefulness and sleep. The neurochemical pathways presented here, thus, are aimed to provide a conceptual framework for the understanding of the effects of currently used medications on wakefulness and sleep.

Abstract

Behavioral states alternate between wakefulness and sleep, which is further subdivided into rapid‐eye‐movement sleep and non‐rapid‐eye‐movement sleep. Waking and sleep states are highly complex processes that are elegantly orchestrated by fine‐tuned neurochemical changes, including the neurotransmitters and neuromodulators glutamate, acetylcholine, γ‐amino‐butyric acid, norepinephrine, dopamine, serotonin, histamine, hypocretin, melanin concentrating hormone, adenosine, and melatonin. However, as highlighted in this brief overview, no single neurotransmitter or neuromodulator, but rather their complex interactions within organized neuronal ensembles, regulate waking and sleep states and drive their transitions. Dysregulation of and medications interfering with these neurochemical systems lead to sleep‐wake disorders and functional changes of wakefulness and sleep. The neurochemical pathways presented here, thus, are aimed to provide a conceptual framework for the understanding of the effects of currently used medications on wakefulness and sleep.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, not_refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology
07 Faculty of Science > Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology

04 Faculty of Medicine > Zentrum für Interdisziplinäre Schlafforschung
Dewey Decimal Classification:570 Life sciences; biology
610 Medicine & health
Language:English
Date:June 2018
Deposited On:30 May 2018 14:25
Last Modified:24 Sep 2019 23:23
Publisher:Elsevier
ISSN:1556-407X
OA Status:Green
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsmc.2018.03.002
PubMed ID:29759265
Project Information:
  • : FunderSNSF
  • : Grant ID320030_163439
  • : Project TitleGlutamatergic mechanisms in sleep-wake homeostasis - molecular brain imaging and pharmacogenetics

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