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Diagnostic value of 18 F-fluordesoxyglucose positron emission tomography for patients with brain metastasis from unknown primary site


Wolpert, Fabian; Weller, Michael; Berghoff, Anna Sophie; Rushing, Elisabeth; Füreder, Lisa Michaela; Petyt, Gregory; Leske, Henning; Andratschke, Nicolaus; Regli, Luca; Neidert, Marian Christoph; Stupp, Roger; Stahel, Rolf; Dummer, Reinhard; Frauenfelder, Thomas; Roth, Patrick; Reyns, Nicolas; Kaufmann, Philipp Antonio; Preusser, Matthias; Le Rhun, Emilie (2018). Diagnostic value of 18 F-fluordesoxyglucose positron emission tomography for patients with brain metastasis from unknown primary site. European Journal of Cancer, 96:64-72.

Abstract

Background In 30% of patients with brain metastasis (BM), neurological symptoms are the first clinical manifestation of systemic malignancy, referred to as BM from cancer of unknown primary site (BM-CUPS). Here, we define the diagnostic value of 18F-fluordesoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET/CT) in the workup of BM-CUPS.
Methods We screened 565 patients operated for BM at the University Hospital Zurich and identified 64 patients with BM-CUPS with data on both FDG-PET/CT and contrast-enhanced chest/abdomen computed tomography (CT) available at BM diagnosis. A cohort of 125 patients with BM-CUPS from Lille and Vienna was used for validation.
Results FDG-PET/CT was not superior to chest/abdomen CT in localising the primary lesion in the discovery cohort, presumably because most primary tumours were lung cancers. However, FDG-PET/CT identified additional lesions suspicious of extracranial metastases in 27 of 64 patients (42%). The inclusion of FDG-PET/CT findings shifted the graded prognostic assessment (GPA) score from 3 with CT alone to 2.5 for PET/CT (p = 3.8 × 10−5, Wilcoxon's test), resulting in a predicted survival of 5.3 versus 3.8 months (p = 6.1 × 10−5; Wilcoxon's test). All observations were confirmed in the validation cohort.
Conclusions Lung cancers are the most common primary tumour in BM-CUPS; accordingly, CT alone shows similar overall sensitivity for detecting the primary tumour as FDG-PET/CT. Yet, FDG-PET/CT improves the accuracy of staging by detecting more metastases, reflected by decreased GPA scores and decreased predicted survival. Therefore, randomised trials on patients with BM should standardise methods of staging, notably when stratifying for GPA.

Abstract

Background In 30% of patients with brain metastasis (BM), neurological symptoms are the first clinical manifestation of systemic malignancy, referred to as BM from cancer of unknown primary site (BM-CUPS). Here, we define the diagnostic value of 18F-fluordesoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET/CT) in the workup of BM-CUPS.
Methods We screened 565 patients operated for BM at the University Hospital Zurich and identified 64 patients with BM-CUPS with data on both FDG-PET/CT and contrast-enhanced chest/abdomen computed tomography (CT) available at BM diagnosis. A cohort of 125 patients with BM-CUPS from Lille and Vienna was used for validation.
Results FDG-PET/CT was not superior to chest/abdomen CT in localising the primary lesion in the discovery cohort, presumably because most primary tumours were lung cancers. However, FDG-PET/CT identified additional lesions suspicious of extracranial metastases in 27 of 64 patients (42%). The inclusion of FDG-PET/CT findings shifted the graded prognostic assessment (GPA) score from 3 with CT alone to 2.5 for PET/CT (p = 3.8 × 10−5, Wilcoxon's test), resulting in a predicted survival of 5.3 versus 3.8 months (p = 6.1 × 10−5; Wilcoxon's test). All observations were confirmed in the validation cohort.
Conclusions Lung cancers are the most common primary tumour in BM-CUPS; accordingly, CT alone shows similar overall sensitivity for detecting the primary tumour as FDG-PET/CT. Yet, FDG-PET/CT improves the accuracy of staging by detecting more metastases, reflected by decreased GPA scores and decreased predicted survival. Therefore, randomised trials on patients with BM should standardise methods of staging, notably when stratifying for GPA.

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Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > University Hospital Zurich > Clinic for Neurology
04 Faculty of Medicine > University Hospital Zurich > Clinic for Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology
04 Faculty of Medicine > University Hospital Zurich > Clinic for Radiation Oncology
04 Faculty of Medicine > University Hospital Zurich > Dermatology Clinic
04 Faculty of Medicine > University Hospital Zurich > Clinic for Neurosurgery
04 Faculty of Medicine > University Hospital Zurich > Clinic for Nuclear Medicine
04 Faculty of Medicine > University Hospital Zurich > Institute of Neuropathology
04 Faculty of Medicine > University Hospital Zurich > Clinic for Oncology
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Language:English
Date:2018
Deposited On:19 Apr 2018 08:46
Last Modified:12 Feb 2019 15:35
Publisher:Elsevier
ISSN:0959-8049
OA Status:Closed
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejca.2018.03.010
PubMed ID:29677642

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