Chronic lymphocytic leukemia is a malignancy of mature B cells that strongly depend on microenvironmental factors, and their deprivation has been identified as a promising treatment approach for this incurable disease. Cytokine array screening of 247 chronic lymphocytic leukemia serum samples revealed elevated levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor-1 which were associated with poor clinical outcome. We detected a microenvironment-induced expression of TNF receptor-1 in chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells , and an aberrantly high expression of this receptor in the proliferation centers of patients' lymph nodes. Stimulation of TNF receptor-1 with TNF-α enhanced nuclear factor κ-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NFκB) activity and viability of chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells, which was inhibited by wogonin. The therapeutic effects of wogonin were analyzed in mice after adoptive transfer of -T-cell leukemia 1 (TCL1) leukemic cells. Wogonin treatment prevented leukemia development when given early after transplantation. The treatment of full-blown leukemia resulted in the loss of the TNF receptor-1 on chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells and their mobilization to blood. Targeting TNF receptor-1 signaling is therefore proposed for the treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia.