OBJECTIVE We aimed to provide mean values for fat-fraction and volume for full-length bilateral rotator cuff and deltoid muscles in asymptomatic adults selected on the basis of their good musculoskeletal and systemic health, and to understand the influence of gender, age, and arm dominance. MATERIALS AND METHODS Seventy-six volunteers aged 20 to 60 years who were screened for normal BMI and high general health were included in the study. MRI was performed at 3 Tesla using three-point DIXON sequences. Volume and fat-signal fraction of the rotator cuff muscles and the deltoid muscle were determined with semi-automated segmentation of entire muscle lengths. Differences according to age, gender, and handedness per muscle were evaluated. RESULTS Fat-signal fractions were comparable between genders (mean ± 2 SD, 95% CI, women 7.0 ± 3.0; 6.8-7.2%, men 6.8 ± 2.7; 6.7-7.0%) but did not show convincing changes with age. Higher shoulder muscle volume and lower fat-signal fraction in the dominant arm were shown for teres minor and deltoid (p < 0.01) with similar trends shown for the other rotator cuff muscles. CONCLUSIONS Bilateral fat-signal fractions and volumes based on entire length shoulder muscles in asymptomatic 20-60 year old adults may provide reference for clinicians. Differences shown according to arm dominance should be considered and may rationalize the need for bilateral imaging in determining appropriate management.