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Outcomes of endovascular reconstruction of the inferior vena cava with self-expanding nitinol stents


Sebastian, Tim; Dopheide, Jörn F; Engelberger, Rolf P; Spirk, David; Kucher, Nils (2018). Outcomes of endovascular reconstruction of the inferior vena cava with self-expanding nitinol stents. Journal of Vascular Surgery. Venous and Lymphatic Disorders, 6(3):312-320.

Abstract

BACKGROUND Occlusion of the inferior vena cava (IVC) often causes venous claudication, leg swelling, or skin changes. We hypothesized that the outcome of nitinol stents for endovascular reconstruction of the IVC is similar to the outcome reported for steel alloy stents. METHODS From the prospective Bern Venous Stent Registry, we investigated technical success, patency rates, and clinical outcome in consecutive patients with endovascular IVC reconstruction. During routine follow-up visits, stent patency was assessed by duplex ultrasound. Clinical outcomes were evaluated using the Bozkaya score, Villalta score, and revised Venous Clinical Severity Score. RESULTS Of the 62 patients (mean age, 46 ± 18 years), 33 (53%) patients were treated for the post-thrombotic syndrome, 17 (27%) for acute thrombosis, and 12 (19%) for nonthrombotic IVC occlusion. Technical success was achieved in 61 (98%) patients, with a mean of 4.5 ± 1.9 stents (iliac kissing stents in 84%). During follow-up (mean, 21 months), 22 (36%) underwent endovascular reintervention for symptomatic stent stenosis (13 [21%] with complete stent occlusion). Primary, primary assisted, and secondary patency rates at 24 months were 57% (95% confidence interval [CI], 50%-73%), 76% (95% CI, 65%-86%), and 87% (95% CI, 80%-95%), respectively. None developed new ulcers, and all eight patients with venous ulcers at baseline had complete healing. Twenty-nine (48%) patients showed significant clinical improvement, and another 26 (43%) were free from any symptoms or signs of venous hypertension. Patients with post-thrombotic venographic changes of the femoral veins at baseline or a history of thrombosis were more likely to lose primary patency compared with patients with normal leg inflow veins and no history of thrombosis (19 [48%] vs 3 [16%]; P = .02). CONCLUSIONS The clinical outcome of endovascular reconstruction of the IVC with nitinol stents was favorable. However, approximately one-third of the patients required reintervention to maintain stent patency, most likely because of the impaired venous inflow.

Abstract

BACKGROUND Occlusion of the inferior vena cava (IVC) often causes venous claudication, leg swelling, or skin changes. We hypothesized that the outcome of nitinol stents for endovascular reconstruction of the IVC is similar to the outcome reported for steel alloy stents. METHODS From the prospective Bern Venous Stent Registry, we investigated technical success, patency rates, and clinical outcome in consecutive patients with endovascular IVC reconstruction. During routine follow-up visits, stent patency was assessed by duplex ultrasound. Clinical outcomes were evaluated using the Bozkaya score, Villalta score, and revised Venous Clinical Severity Score. RESULTS Of the 62 patients (mean age, 46 ± 18 years), 33 (53%) patients were treated for the post-thrombotic syndrome, 17 (27%) for acute thrombosis, and 12 (19%) for nonthrombotic IVC occlusion. Technical success was achieved in 61 (98%) patients, with a mean of 4.5 ± 1.9 stents (iliac kissing stents in 84%). During follow-up (mean, 21 months), 22 (36%) underwent endovascular reintervention for symptomatic stent stenosis (13 [21%] with complete stent occlusion). Primary, primary assisted, and secondary patency rates at 24 months were 57% (95% confidence interval [CI], 50%-73%), 76% (95% CI, 65%-86%), and 87% (95% CI, 80%-95%), respectively. None developed new ulcers, and all eight patients with venous ulcers at baseline had complete healing. Twenty-nine (48%) patients showed significant clinical improvement, and another 26 (43%) were free from any symptoms or signs of venous hypertension. Patients with post-thrombotic venographic changes of the femoral veins at baseline or a history of thrombosis were more likely to lose primary patency compared with patients with normal leg inflow veins and no history of thrombosis (19 [48%] vs 3 [16%]; P = .02). CONCLUSIONS The clinical outcome of endovascular reconstruction of the IVC with nitinol stents was favorable. However, approximately one-third of the patients required reintervention to maintain stent patency, most likely because of the impaired venous inflow.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, not_refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > University Hospital Zurich > Clinic for Angiology
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Language:English
Date:May 2018
Deposited On:09 May 2018 15:19
Last Modified:10 May 2018 07:33
Publisher:Elsevier
ISSN:2213-333X
OA Status:Closed
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvsv.2017.11.012
PubMed ID:29550177

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