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Local mepivacaine before castration of horses under medetomidine isoflurane balanced anaesthesia is effective to reduce perioperative nociception and cytokine release


Abass, M; Picek, S; Garzón, J F G; Kühnle, Christophe; Zaghlou, A; Bettschart-Wolfensberger, Regula (2018). Local mepivacaine before castration of horses under medetomidine isoflurane balanced anaesthesia is effective to reduce perioperative nociception and cytokine release. Equine Veterinary Journal, 50(6):733-738.

Abstract

BACKGROUND: In horses castration with primary intention healing is usually performed under balanced inhalation anaesthesia. To optimise analgesia, the use of local anaesthesia was tested.
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effect of local mepivacaine before castration with first intention healing under balanced medetomidine-isoflurane anaesthesia and flunixin meglumine, morphine analgesia on perioperative cytokine levels and pain in horses.
STUDY DESIGN: Prospective blinded clinical study.
METHODS: Twenty stallions were randomly assigned to control or mepivacaine groups. Flunixin meglumine was administered before sedation with medetomidine and followed by ketamine/diazepam intravenously (i.v.). Anaesthesia was maintained with isoflurane and 3.5 μg/kg per hour medetomidine. Mepivacaine horses were given mepivacaine 2% (3.5 mL SC, 1 mL/100 kg intrafunicularly, 2 mL/100 kg intratesticularly) on each side. For recovery, horses were given 2 μg/kg medetomidine i.v. and 0.1 mg/kg morphine i.m. and oral phenylbutazone (0.02 mg/kg q12h) for post-operative analgesia. One hour before premedication and 4, 8 and 24 h post-incision, pain was scored with three different pain scales (Equine Utrecht University Scale for Facial Assessment of Pain, Horse Grimace Scale, Equine Utrecht University Scale for Composite Pain Assessment) and plasma cytokines (interleukin-6 and tumour necrosis factor alpha) were measured. Data were analysed using repeated measures ANOVA, linear regression and unpaired t-test, significance level P≤0.05.
RESULTS: Horses in both groups showed a significant increase in pain scores and cytokines compared to baseline. Post-operatively the mepivacaine group exhibited significantly lower pain scores and cytokine levels. Mean heart rate during anaesthesia was significantly lower in the mepivacaine group compared to control group (28.8 ± 1 and 33.2 ± 1.7 respectively). Otherwise there were no differences between the groups.
MAIN LIMITATIONS: The decision to provide additional analgesia was based on the attending surgeon's assessment rather than a standardised rescue analgesia plan based on pain scores. The study was only conducted for 24 h post-castration and complications were not recorded.
CONCLUSION: Local mepivacaine before castration with primary wound closure improved anaesthesia quality, attenuated post-operative increases in cytokines and reduced post-operative pain despite balanced anaesthesia with multimodal analgesia in control horses.

Abstract

BACKGROUND: In horses castration with primary intention healing is usually performed under balanced inhalation anaesthesia. To optimise analgesia, the use of local anaesthesia was tested.
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effect of local mepivacaine before castration with first intention healing under balanced medetomidine-isoflurane anaesthesia and flunixin meglumine, morphine analgesia on perioperative cytokine levels and pain in horses.
STUDY DESIGN: Prospective blinded clinical study.
METHODS: Twenty stallions were randomly assigned to control or mepivacaine groups. Flunixin meglumine was administered before sedation with medetomidine and followed by ketamine/diazepam intravenously (i.v.). Anaesthesia was maintained with isoflurane and 3.5 μg/kg per hour medetomidine. Mepivacaine horses were given mepivacaine 2% (3.5 mL SC, 1 mL/100 kg intrafunicularly, 2 mL/100 kg intratesticularly) on each side. For recovery, horses were given 2 μg/kg medetomidine i.v. and 0.1 mg/kg morphine i.m. and oral phenylbutazone (0.02 mg/kg q12h) for post-operative analgesia. One hour before premedication and 4, 8 and 24 h post-incision, pain was scored with three different pain scales (Equine Utrecht University Scale for Facial Assessment of Pain, Horse Grimace Scale, Equine Utrecht University Scale for Composite Pain Assessment) and plasma cytokines (interleukin-6 and tumour necrosis factor alpha) were measured. Data were analysed using repeated measures ANOVA, linear regression and unpaired t-test, significance level P≤0.05.
RESULTS: Horses in both groups showed a significant increase in pain scores and cytokines compared to baseline. Post-operatively the mepivacaine group exhibited significantly lower pain scores and cytokine levels. Mean heart rate during anaesthesia was significantly lower in the mepivacaine group compared to control group (28.8 ± 1 and 33.2 ± 1.7 respectively). Otherwise there were no differences between the groups.
MAIN LIMITATIONS: The decision to provide additional analgesia was based on the attending surgeon's assessment rather than a standardised rescue analgesia plan based on pain scores. The study was only conducted for 24 h post-castration and complications were not recorded.
CONCLUSION: Local mepivacaine before castration with primary wound closure improved anaesthesia quality, attenuated post-operative increases in cytokines and reduced post-operative pain despite balanced anaesthesia with multimodal analgesia in control horses.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > Institute of Physiology
07 Faculty of Science > Institute of Physiology

05 Vetsuisse Faculty > Veterinary Clinic > Equine Department
05 Vetsuisse Faculty > Department of Clinical Diagnostics and Services
Dewey Decimal Classification:570 Life sciences; biology
630 Agriculture
Uncontrolled Keywords:IL-6, TNF-α, analgesia, horse
Language:English
Date:1 November 2018
Deposited On:23 May 2018 09:50
Last Modified:01 Oct 2018 09:08
Publisher:Wiley-Blackwell Publishing, Inc.
ISSN:0425-1644
OA Status:Closed
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1111/evj.12947
PubMed ID:29660154

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