Tuberculosis (TB) is a major public health problem. Many countries still fall below the minimum World Health Organization (WHO) TB treatment target success rate. There is conflicting evidence about whether concentrations of anti-tuberculosis drugs given at standard doses have an effect on treatment outcomes. The current data correlating anti-TB drug concentrations and treatment outcome is limited. This article summarized the existing literature and their utility in evaluating the association between each anti-TB drug's concentrations using current target concentrations and treatment outcomes in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis receiving standard WHO-recommended dosing.