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Gender differences in the use of cardiovascular interventions in HIV-positive persons; the D:A:D Study


Hatleberg, Camilla I; Ryom, Lene; El-Sadr, Wafaa; Mocroft, Amanda; Reiss, Peter; De Wit, Stephane; Dabis, Francois; Pradier, Christian; d'Arminio Monforte, Antonella; Kovari, Helen; Law, Matthew; Lundgren, Jens D; Sabin, Caroline A; D:A:D Study Group (2018). Gender differences in the use of cardiovascular interventions in HIV-positive persons; the D:A:D Study. Journal of the International Aids Society:e25083.

Abstract

INTRODUCTION There is paucity of data related to potential gender differences in the use of interventions to prevent and treat cardiovascular disease (CVD) among HIV-positive individuals. We investigated whether such differences exist in the observational D:A:D cohort study. METHODS Participants were followed from study enrolment until the earliest of death, six months after last visit or February 1, 2015. Initiation of CVD interventions [lipid-lowering drugs (LLDs), angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs), anti-hypertensives, invasive cardiovascular procedures (ICPs) were investigated and Poisson regression models calculated whether rates were lower among women than men, adjusting for potential confounders. RESULTS Women (n = 12,955) were generally at lower CVD risk than men (n = 36,094). Overall, initiation rates of CVD interventions were lower in women than men; LLDs: incidence rate 1.28 [1.21, 1.35] vs. 2.40 [2.34, 2.46]; ACEIs: 0.88 [0.82, 0.93] vs. 1.43 [1.39, 1.48]; anti-hypertensives: 1.40 [1.33, 1.47] vs. 1.72 [1.68, 1.77] and ICPs: 0.08 [0.06, 0.10] vs. 0.30 [0.28, 0.32], and this was also true for most CVD interventions when exclusively considering periods of follow-up for which individuals were at high CVD risk. In fully adjusted models, women were less likely to receive CVD interventions than men (LLDs: relative rate 0.83 [0.78, 0.88]; ACEIs: 0.93 [0.86, 1.01]; ICPs: 0.54 [0.43, 0.68]), except for the receipt of anti-hypertensives (1.17 [1.10, 1.25]). CONCLUSION The use of most CVD interventions was lower among women than men. Interventions are needed to ensure that all HIV-positive persons, particularly women, are appropriately monitored for CVD and, if required, receive appropriate CVD interventions.

Abstract

INTRODUCTION There is paucity of data related to potential gender differences in the use of interventions to prevent and treat cardiovascular disease (CVD) among HIV-positive individuals. We investigated whether such differences exist in the observational D:A:D cohort study. METHODS Participants were followed from study enrolment until the earliest of death, six months after last visit or February 1, 2015. Initiation of CVD interventions [lipid-lowering drugs (LLDs), angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs), anti-hypertensives, invasive cardiovascular procedures (ICPs) were investigated and Poisson regression models calculated whether rates were lower among women than men, adjusting for potential confounders. RESULTS Women (n = 12,955) were generally at lower CVD risk than men (n = 36,094). Overall, initiation rates of CVD interventions were lower in women than men; LLDs: incidence rate 1.28 [1.21, 1.35] vs. 2.40 [2.34, 2.46]; ACEIs: 0.88 [0.82, 0.93] vs. 1.43 [1.39, 1.48]; anti-hypertensives: 1.40 [1.33, 1.47] vs. 1.72 [1.68, 1.77] and ICPs: 0.08 [0.06, 0.10] vs. 0.30 [0.28, 0.32], and this was also true for most CVD interventions when exclusively considering periods of follow-up for which individuals were at high CVD risk. In fully adjusted models, women were less likely to receive CVD interventions than men (LLDs: relative rate 0.83 [0.78, 0.88]; ACEIs: 0.93 [0.86, 1.01]; ICPs: 0.54 [0.43, 0.68]), except for the receipt of anti-hypertensives (1.17 [1.10, 1.25]). CONCLUSION The use of most CVD interventions was lower among women than men. Interventions are needed to ensure that all HIV-positive persons, particularly women, are appropriately monitored for CVD and, if required, receive appropriate CVD interventions.

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Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > University Children's Hospital Zurich > Medical Clinic
04 Faculty of Medicine > University Hospital Zurich > Clinic for Infectious Diseases
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Language:English
Date:21 March 2018
Deposited On:06 Jun 2018 12:05
Last Modified:25 Apr 2019 07:17
Publisher:International AIDS Society (Switzerland)
ISSN:1758-2652
OA Status:Gold
Free access at:PubMed ID. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1002/jia2.25083
PubMed ID:29509305
Project Information:
  • : FunderSNSF
  • : Grant ID33CS30_148522
  • : Project TitleSwiss HIV Cohort Study (SHCS)
  • : FunderSNSF
  • : Grant ID33CSC0-108787
  • : Project TitleSwiss HIV Cohort Study
  • : FunderFP7
  • : Grant ID260694
  • : Project TitleEUROCOORD - European Network of HIV/AIDS Cohort Studies to Coordinate at European and International Level Clinical Research on HIV/AIDS

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