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Dietary Patterns and Physical Activity Correlate With Total Cholesterol Independently of Lipid-Lowering Drugs and Antiretroviral Therapy in Aging People Living With Human Immunodeficiency Virus


Marzel, Alex; Kouyos, Roger D; Reinschmidt, Sara; Balzer, Katharina; Garon, Fabienne; Spitaleri, Monica; Matthes, Nicolas; Suter, Paolo; Weber, Rainer; Staehelin, Cornelia; Lecompte, Thanh Doco; Tarr, Philip; Kovari, Helen; Swiss HIV Cohort Study (2018). Dietary Patterns and Physical Activity Correlate With Total Cholesterol Independently of Lipid-Lowering Drugs and Antiretroviral Therapy in Aging People Living With Human Immunodeficiency Virus. Open Forum Infectious Diseases, 5(4):ofy067.

Abstract

Background Hypercholesterolemia is a well established risk factor for coronary heart disease and is highly prevalent among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive persons. Antiretroviral therapy (ART) can both directly modify total cholesterol and have drug-drug interactions with statins. This makes investigating modifiable behavioral predictors of total cholesterol a pertinent task. Methods To explore the association between diet and physical activity with cross-sectionally measured total cholesterol, we administered a validated Food-Frequency-Questionnaire to participants of the Swiss HIV Cohort Study ≥45 years old. Linear mixed-effects models were applied to explore the associations between dietary patterns and physical activity with total cholesterol, after adjustment for clinical and demographic covariates. Results In total, 395 patients were included. Forty percent (158 of 395) had elevated total cholesterol (>5.2 mmol/L), and 41% (164 of 395) were not regularly physically active. In multivariable analysis, 2 factors were positively associated with total cholesterol; female sex (β = 0.562; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.229-0.896) and the combined consumption of meat, refined/milled grains, carbonated beverages, and coffee (β = 0.243; 95% CI, 0.047-0.439). On the other hand, regular physical activity (β = -0.381; 95% CI, -0.626 to -0.136), lipid-lowering drugs (β = -0.443; 95% CI -0.691 to -0.196), ART containing tenofovir (β = -0.336; 95% CI -0.554 to -0.118), and black ethnicity (β = -0.967; 95% CI -1.524 to -0.410) exhibited a negative association. Conclusions We found independent associations between certain dietary patterns and physical activity with total cholesterol. Increasing physical activity might achieve cardiovascular and other health benefits in HIV-positive individuals. The clinical relevance of the identified dietary patterns requires further investigation in prospective cohort studies and randomized controlled trials.

Abstract

Background Hypercholesterolemia is a well established risk factor for coronary heart disease and is highly prevalent among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive persons. Antiretroviral therapy (ART) can both directly modify total cholesterol and have drug-drug interactions with statins. This makes investigating modifiable behavioral predictors of total cholesterol a pertinent task. Methods To explore the association between diet and physical activity with cross-sectionally measured total cholesterol, we administered a validated Food-Frequency-Questionnaire to participants of the Swiss HIV Cohort Study ≥45 years old. Linear mixed-effects models were applied to explore the associations between dietary patterns and physical activity with total cholesterol, after adjustment for clinical and demographic covariates. Results In total, 395 patients were included. Forty percent (158 of 395) had elevated total cholesterol (>5.2 mmol/L), and 41% (164 of 395) were not regularly physically active. In multivariable analysis, 2 factors were positively associated with total cholesterol; female sex (β = 0.562; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.229-0.896) and the combined consumption of meat, refined/milled grains, carbonated beverages, and coffee (β = 0.243; 95% CI, 0.047-0.439). On the other hand, regular physical activity (β = -0.381; 95% CI, -0.626 to -0.136), lipid-lowering drugs (β = -0.443; 95% CI -0.691 to -0.196), ART containing tenofovir (β = -0.336; 95% CI -0.554 to -0.118), and black ethnicity (β = -0.967; 95% CI -1.524 to -0.410) exhibited a negative association. Conclusions We found independent associations between certain dietary patterns and physical activity with total cholesterol. Increasing physical activity might achieve cardiovascular and other health benefits in HIV-positive individuals. The clinical relevance of the identified dietary patterns requires further investigation in prospective cohort studies and randomized controlled trials.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > University Hospital Zurich > Clinic and Policlinic for Internal Medicine
04 Faculty of Medicine > University Children's Hospital Zurich > Medical Clinic
04 Faculty of Medicine > University Hospital Zurich > Clinic for Infectious Diseases
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Language:English
Date:April 2018
Deposited On:06 Jun 2018 12:15
Last Modified:15 Jan 2019 16:06
Publisher:Oxford University Press
ISSN:2328-8957
OA Status:Gold
Free access at:PubMed ID. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1093/ofid/ofy067
PubMed ID:29687016
Project Information:
  • : FunderSNSF
  • : Grant ID33CS30_148522
  • : Project TitleSwiss HIV Cohort Study (SHCS)
  • : FunderFP7
  • : Grant ID249801
  • : Project TitleLASTBEG - Large Scale Tool for Power Balancing in Electric Grid

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