Staphylococcus aureus endovascular infections retain a high morbidity and mortality despite antibiotics and supportive care. The destruction of endothelial cells (ECs) is a critical step in the pathogenesis of S. aureus endovascular infections. In order to better understand S. aureus-induced EC damage, we systematically screened a collection of two-component regulatory system mutants of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) USA300 strain JE2 for damage induction in human umbilical vein ECs (HUVECs). This screen revealed that the two-component regulatory system ArlRS is required for maximum damage: arlRS inactivation leads to a > 70% reduction in damage. In a different genetic S. aureus background (RN6390, MSSA strain) arlRS inactivation had a smaller but also significant effect on EC damage. In both strains, the reduction in EC damage was accompanied by a significant reduction in internalization. In conclusion, we determined a novel role of ArlRS in S. aureus-induced EC damage, which will help to better understand the pathogenesis of S. aureus endovascular infection.